(also “The Virginia Marseillaise”), 1792, Claude Roget de Lisle (1760 – 1836) [26th NC, C.S.A. Band Books]
Following France's declaration of war on Austria and Prussia, the mayor of Strasbourg, Baron de Dietrich, asked army engineer Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle to write a marching song. On the night of April 25th 1792, Rouget de Lisle penned the “war song for the Rhine Army”, named in honor of the garrison to which he belonged. The song was published as “Border armies' war song” in Marseille to recruit volunteers for a march on King Louis XVI's Tuileries palace. The revolutionaries adopted the song and sang it with such fervor as they entered Paris, on July 30th 1792; the Parisians named it La Marseillaise. Ironically, Rouget de Lisle was a supporter of the monarchy. [the same sort of thing happened with Unionist Dan Emmett’s “Dixie’s Land.”
La Marseillaise was declared a national song on July 14th 1795 but subsequently banned under the Empire. The July revolution of 1830 reinstated the song, which was rearranged by Hector Berlioz, and it was adopted as the national anthem under the Third Republic in 1879. In 1887 the Ministry of War, after consultation with a specially appointed commission, adopted an “official version” of the song, which was written into the Constitutions of the Fourth and Fifth Republics (1946 and 1958 respectively). Article 2 of the Constitution of October 4th 1958 designates La Marseillaise the national anthem of France.
Identifying themselves with all revolutionary movements, the Confederates adopted the French Marseillaise. Many States contributed their own words and added their name to the title. It was played at the inauguration of Jefferson Davis in Montgomery, Alabama. As the rally-song of the South, it so infuriated Northerners that when visiting French actors opened their show with it at a New York theater, they were promptly arrested for being secessionists.
Largo al Factotum from The Barber of Seville
1816, Gioacchino Rossini (1792 – 1868) [25th Mass. Band Books]
This popular aria is undoubtedly the most recognizable in all opera, due to its being featured in a series of Looney Tunes and other cartoon features. The image of the robust Figaro, Seville’s barber and resident “jack-of-all-trades” (or factotum), can only be rivaled by that of the insatiable Falstaff (from those other operas). Figaro is hired by Count Almaviva to come up with a scheme whereby he could marry Rosina, ward of Dr. Bartolo who also wishes to marry her. In his aria, Figaro develops a plan to sneak the Count in under disguise as a sick soldier. After several thwarted attempts and facing arrest as kidnappers, the count reveals his identity and his marriage to Rosina is applauded by all but Dr. Bartolo, who must be satisfied with receiving her dowry, instead.
An interesting side note is that Rossini’s production was met with hostility and considered sacrilege, as Giovanni Paiseillo’s production, 40 years earlier, was heralded as a masterpiece. However, after the first performance, audiences realized the superiority of Rossini’s version. A solo cornet version of Paiseillo’s “Hope Told a Flat’ring Tale” can be found in the Olde Towne Brass collection
18--, Franz Schubert (1797 – 1828) [part books found in the U.S. Marine Band archives]
Schubert’s “Serenade” is found in nearly every set of band books. The pathos in this music played heavily on young courtiers.
Last Rose of Summer
1813, Thomas Moore (1779 – 1852) [26th NC, C.S.A. Band Books]
The tune is the much older Groves of Blarney, 1790, written by Richard Alfred Milliken, which in turn was based on an even earlier tune “Castle Hyde”. Beethoven used the melody as part of his contract with George Thomson. Mendelssohn wrote a piano fantasia on it. But it is most remembered as it was used in Von Flotow's opera, Martha.
traditional/ Septimus Winner (1827 – 1902) [Alfred Squire, piano: Sep. Winner]
Winner's Song “Der Dietcher's Dog” or “Oh, Where, Oh, Where Has My Little Dog Gone?” (1864) is based on this popular German song which was based on the 3rd Movement of Beethoven's 6th Symphony (1809), which in turn, was based on a 13th C. English dance.
William Henry Frye (1813-1864) J.W. Pepper (1901) [20th Century Journal]
William R. Bayley, who had played with the State Fencibles Band of Philadelphia early in the 1840s, accounted for Grafulla's success as a bandmaster: “One of the most accomplished musicians of these days was Grafulla of the New York Seventh Regiment Band. His particular talent was in arranging band music. At this he was very rapid and accurate. On one occasion my band was playing for the day in New York City. One of the members was engaged in the Chestnut Street Theatre, here they were to produce Frye's new opera, Leonora. . . It is unconnected with the plot of Fidelio. This man whistled from memory some of the popular airs to Grafulla, who wrote them down, and before we left he handed me a completely arranged potpourri, which we played in Philadelphia that night while marching past the Chestnut Street Theatre. This off-hand arrangement, with trifling corrections, became very popular with the bands shortly afterwards.”
Leonora: a British form of reference to the heroine of Beethoven's opera Fidelio-properly Leonore-identifying Beethoven's Leonora Overtures nos. 1, 2, and 3 (1804-7). The numbering, formerly thought chronologically deceptive, is now considered correct. Each of these was in its time intended as the overture to the opera, but all were eventually superseded for this purpose by the overture now actually called Fidelio. The Leonora overtures are now heard as concert pieces; and no. 3, the best known, is also sometimes performed (without authority from Beethoven) as an orchestral interlude during the opera.
Light Guard, The (QS)
Claudio S. Grafulla (1810 – 1880) [pub: 1875 by J.W. Pepper]
1836, Michael W. Balfe (1808 – 1880) [25th Mass Regt. Band Books]
This aria is taken from the opera, The Maid of Artois by Alfred Bunn. Bunn was a poet and theater manager. He commissioned Balfe to write the music. Its premiere on May 27, 1836 at Drury Lane theatre in London was a great financial success, largely due to the celebrated mezzo-soprano Maria Malibran’s performance. Balfe and Malibran had become close friends while both were singers at La Scala. Balfe wrote the music especially for her. Malibran later called Balfe “The English Rossini.” Twenty years after its premiere, Light of Other Days was described as “the most popular song in England that our days have known.” Bunn later managed both Covent Garden and Drury Lane.
Light of Other Days
1836, Michael W. Balfe (1808 – 1880) [25th Mass Regt. Band Books] see above
Lilly Bell Q.S.
1853, Charles Mueller [Brass Band Journal, 1854]
This was a very popular tune with (G. Swaine) Buckley’s New Orleans Serenaders. The lyrics, by W.W. Wakelam, are typical of the period: “Oh Lilly Bell I'm weeping, I'm weeping, love, for thee, But thou in death art sleeping, Beneath the willow tree.”
1854, T. Wood [Brass Band Journal, 1854]
With words by Reverend G.W. Rogers & S. Stanley, and sung by the Amphions, this is a song of the peace that death brings. “We have parted in sadness with pale Lilly Lee … She has gone to inherit a home with her God.”
Linda (di Chamounix) Q.S.
1842, Gaetano Donizetti (1797 – 1848) [Squire's New Olio No. 3]
The opera opens in the Alpine valley of Chamounix where a farmer and his family can't pay off their mortgage, held by the Marquise de Sirval. When the brother of the marquise arrives and attempts to seduce Linda, the farmer's daughter. The village Prefect warns the farmer and has Linda sent to Paris to stay with his brother. There she finds the brother dead but consoles herself with Carlo, a painter from her village who has followed. He is in love with Linda and reveals that he is the son of the marquise. When her father visits, he finds her in a luxurious apartment and accuses her of prostitution. Carlo has problems with his mother and abandons Linda, temporarily. She goes insane. After she is brought back to the village, she recognizes Carlo and regains her sanity when she hears the marquise now consents to their union. Heard here is the aria “Sweetly, the Merry Marriage Bells.”
Listen to the Mockingbird
Septimus Winner (1827 – 1902) [26th NC, CSA Band Books]
This is a straight-ahead version of the popular tune. See Mockingbird Q.S.
1857, Rev. Henry DeLafayette Webster and Joseph Philbrick Webster (1819 – 1875) [piano: Higgins Brothers]
Despite their names, the two were not related. Henry was an itinerant minister of the Universalist Church and traveled through Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin. While in Zanesville, Ohio, he fell in love with Martha Ellen (or Eleanor) Blocksom, who later left him to marry a lawyer as she refused to live on a preacher's meager salary. Her husband went on to become Chief Justice of Ohio. Webster wrote the poem Bertha in her honor, but by request of J.P. Webster, used a variation on Edgar Allen Poe's Lenore. The composer, Joseph, met Henry in Madison, Wisconsin in 1856 while traveling from New Hampshire. The name Lorena did not exist prior to the song's publication; but was very popular afterwards. J.P. Webster continued writing music during and after the war. His other “hit” being In the Sweet By and By.
Lorena & Bright Smiles Quickstep
Webster & Webster and William T. Wrighton (1816 – 1880) [26th NC, C.S.A. Band Books]
This arrangement is taken from the Bandbooks of the 26th North Carolina Regiment Band. This band was the third band culled from the musically enriched Moravian community of Salem. The Salem Band, dating from 1772, is second only to the Moravian Trombone Choir of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania as being the oldest band in the U.S. The 11th Regt. and the 33rd Regt. NCV also came from the Salem / Bethania area. Julius Leinbach, the band's principle arranger, Eb Bass and later 2nd Cornet, probably arranged this medley. SEE LORENA The second tune Her Bright Smile Haunts Me Still was another sentimental ballad loved by soldiers but despised by officers for their effect on troop morale. The quickstep was the perfect vehicle to present the tunes for the troops without aggravating the command. This was the last piece played by the 26th before Lee's surrender.
18--, ? [26th NC, C.S.A. Band Books]
This is possibly a polka from Verdi's opera Louisa Miller.
1854, J. Schatzman [Peters' Saxhorn Journal, 1859]
Lulu is Gone
1858, Stephen Collins Foster (1826 – 1864) [26th NC C.S.A. Band Books]
Foster's title refers to Lula. Many songs of this period were songs of grief and lost love, so many people assumed Lula had passed away. Realizing the popularity of this character, Foster set out to convince everyone, she had only gone to Florida for the winter months, and placed her name in several songs that followed.
18--, A.E. Blackmar (1826 – 1888) [26th NC, C.S.A. Band Books]
Composers routinely selected fragments of other's works and incorporated them into their own. Towards the end of this selection is a direct quote from W.M. Balfe's Pirate's Chorus, which was also used for the song The Sword of R.E. Lee.