Olde Towne Brass  



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A Southron Serenade CD

Olde Towne Brass: Live CD

The Blue & Grey Olio CD

A Southron Serenade Tape

Band Music of the Blue & Grey Tape


Historic Notes  - The Blue & Grey Olio

These notes are free for you to use for verbal introductions, however, the material may not be reproduced without consent and recognition of the researcher and compiler, Terry Cornett.

Dixie's Land, 1859, Daniel Decatur Emmett  (1815-1904)   [Squire's Cornet Band Olio, Set #1 1871]

    One of the most familiar and popular tunes of all time, Dixie's Land (or Dixie) was subjected to many lyrical parodies, including one by Brig. Gen. Albert Pike, whose War Song of Dixie called “Southrons to Arms.” Emmett's “walk-around” was being performed in Chicago where Abraham Lincoln, then attorney for the Illinois Central Railroad in the “Sand-Bar” litigation, stood, applauded violently, and shouted, “Let's have it again! Let's have it again!” Lincoln requested the tune frequently after he was elected and had it performed immediately upon hearing of Lee's surrender proclaiming it “captured” and, once again, the whole Nation's property. Mrs. John Wood, a New Orleans actress, has been credited with the South's introduction to the tune when Carlo Patti, music director of the Variety Theatre, used it in a musical production of John Brougham's Pocahontas. There the tune accompanied a march and drill routine of 40 women dressed as Zouaves. It was so successful it had to be repeated 7 times. This “martial” use of the tune carried over to the soldiers when a quickstep version was arranged for Louisiana regiments.

    Conflicting stories surround Mr. Hermann Arnold’s acquisition of the tune, but what is known is that he arranged the tune as a quickstep for the inaugural parade of Jefferson Davis, February 22, 1862. Arnold claimed to have heard Emmett perform the tune at the New Montgomery Theater, when John Wilkes Booth starred at its opening. Arnold transcribed the tune onto the wallpaper of the theater, and later arranged it for his band. That segment of wallpaper is now housed in the Alabama Department of Archives and History Building, in Montgomery. However, in a 1924 interview, Mr. Arnold said that the tune was an old German song, and that after showing Emmett the tune; Emmett added words and published it as his own.

    Though many composers claimed to have written Dixie, none were successful in their challenge. This is not to say Emmett merely “pulled the song from thin air.” He later made conflicting statements as to its origin, stating it was an old circus tune or even a nursery song. It is very likely he heard it, or something quite similar, as a child in Knox County, Ohio. That was also the home of the Snowden Family Band, a family of free blacks, who supplemented their income by giving concerts throughout the region. Two sons, Ben and Lew, continued performing into the 1900s. Their common headstone is inscribed: “They taught ‘Dixie’ to Dan Emmett.”

Stonewall Jackson's Way, 1862, John Williamson Palmer (1825-1906) tune: anon   [piano: George Zwillig]

    Maj. General Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson was, and continues to be, one of the great legendary figures of the Confederacy. His untimely death left a gaping hole in Confederate ranks. Many musical tributes were composed shortly after his death, although the best known, “Stonewall Jackson's Way,” was written before. Palmer, a physician, poet, playwright and war correspondent for the New York Times, wrote the song during the battle of Antietam, and published it, anonymously, to avoid being arrested as a Southern sympathizer. To further disguise his identity, an inscription on the title page claims the lyric was “found on the body of a Confederate sergeant of the old Stonewall Brigade who was killed at Winchester, Virginia.” The song details many of the peculiar mannerisms of the good General and the dedicated men that followed him.

 Lorena, 1857, Rev. Henry DeLafayette Webster and Joseph Philbrick Webster      [piano: Higgins Brothers]

    Despite their names the two were not related. Henry was an itinerant minister of the Universalist Church and traveled through Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin. While in Zanesville, Ohio, he fell in love with Martha Ellen (or Eleanor) Blocksom, who later left him to marry a lawyer as she refused to live on a preacher's meager salary. Her husband went on to become Chief Justice of Ohio. Webster wrote the poem Bertha in her honor, but by request of J.P. Webster, used a variation on Edgar Allen Poe's “Lenore.” The composer, Joseph, met Henry in Madison, Wisconsin in 1856 while traveling from New Hampshire. The name Lorena did not exist prior to the song's publication; but was very popular afterwards. J.P. Webster continued writing music during and after the war. His other “hit” being In the Sweet By and By.      

Kingdom Coming (Year of Jubilo), 1862, Henry Clay Work  (1832-1884)  [piano:  Root & Cady]

    Publisher George Root recognized a masterpiece when he saw it and set out some of the most elaborate promotion for this song, culminating with the introduction by Christy's Minstrels prior to its release. The song's success was immediate and overwhelming. Though Work had never witnessed first-hand the slavery situation in the South, he was familiar as his father was active in the Underground Railroad and their home was a “station.” Despite its view, the song was extremely popular in the South. When Blackmar published the song in Augusta, the cover boasted “As Sung by the First Tennessee Opera Troupe,” which was actually the company’s glee club. The song was reportedly sung by Negro troops as they marched into Richmond April 3, 1865.

  Come Dearest The Daylight is Gone, 1852, Brinley Richards (1819-1885)  [26th Regt. North Carolina Troops C.S.A. Band Books]

    Richards was a Welsh pianist, teacher and composer. He was a pupil at the Royal Academy of Music in London and wrote the Welsh National Anthem, God Bless the Prince of Wales. “Dearest” was said to be one of Robert E. Lee's favorite songs.

  Slumber Polka, 18--, E. Beyer,    [26th Regt. North Carolina Troops, C.S.A. Band Books]

    The original title is Schlummer Polka and has subtitles of “I am tired and sleepy” for the polka and “I am worn out” for the Trio. This tune also appears in Squire's Cornet Band Olio as Sleepy Polka. Several editions by T. Richards and S. Winner were found.

  God Save The South, 1863, Charles Wolfgang Amadeus Ellerbrock    [piano:  Miller & Beacham/ Blackmar & Bro.]

    With a name like his, Charles Ellerbrock was destined to become a composer. His composition, loosely based on God Save the King, became the un-official National Anthem of the Confederacy— a position it held with several others. Ellerbrock was the arranger on the original Maryland, My Maryland; however, subsequent editions listed the arranger as “A Lady of Baltimore.” George H. Miles wrote the inspiring poem and published under the pseudonym Earnest Halphin.

  Bonnie Blue Flag, 1861, Harry Macarthy (1834-1888)  tune: by Valentine Vousden [Squire's Cornet Band Olio, Set #1 1871]

    The first recorded use of the lone star flag dates to September 11, 1810, when a troop of West Florida dragoons, tired of Spanish repression, set out for the provincial capitol at Baton Rouge under this flag. They were joined by other republican forces and captured Baton Rouge, imprisoned the Governor and on September 23, 1810 raised their Bonnie Blue flag over Fort Baton Rouge. Three days later the president of the West Florida Convention, signed a Declaration of Independence and the flag became the emblem of a new republic. By December 10, the flag of the United States replaced the Bonnie Blue after President Madison issued a proclamation declaring West Florida under the jurisdiction of the Governor of the Louisiana Territory. With this rebellion in mind, the flag was used by the Republic of Texas from 1836 to 1839. The Confederate government did not adopt this flag but the people did and the lone star flags were adopted in some form in five of the southern States that adopted new flags in 1861.

    On January 9, 1861 the convention of the People of Mississippi adopted an Ordinance of Secession. With this announcement the Bonnie Blue flag was raised over the capitol building in Jackson. Harry Macarthy, the English born “Arkansas Comedian,” was so inspired that he wrote the first couple of verses to The Bonnie Blue Flag, which was to become the second most popular patriotic song of the Confederacy. After the sales of his published broadside exceeded expectations, Macarthy sold the rights to A.E. Blackmar for $500 and a piano. He set his lyric to an original tune by Vousden, called The Irish Jaunting Car, which should not be confused with another of a similar name, The Low-Backed Jaunting Car.    

    Macarthy continued to sing his song during his “Personation Concerts,” adding new verses to describe the parade of secession, as each State became part of the Confederacy. Eventually, he added words to encourage Missouri and Kentucky to join. The song, and its presentation, was so powerful, it caused a riot at New Orleans’ Academy of Music. Macarthy strode to center stage, wearing a Confederate officer’s uniform, and began singing. Before reaching the chorus, his beautiful wife, Lottie Estelle, ran onstage waving a blue silk flag with a single white star. She threw her arms around his neck and he sang the resounding chorus. The audience sprang to its feet and cheered loudly. Macarthy would have to wait for them to quiet down before he could continue. Then, as each chorus came around, the crowd would join in and cheer louder than before. Col. Frank Terry’s Texas Rangers were in attendance, and one soldier, unable to control his emotions, could not stop cheering. When a policeman tried to remove him, the Texans were outraged and a mêlée ensued. Additional policemen joined in until the Mayor and Col. Terry put an end to it. But it was too late, the impact of this bold song of defiance, was deeply set in the minds of every Southerner. Macarthy has been compared to Bob Hope, in that he spent a great deal of time entertaining troops in the field, and was universally loved, partly because of his enormous humanitarian efforts. Macarthy routinely turned over his concert proceeds to charitable funds.

    Knowing the song’s power, when Gen. Benjamin Butler, U.S.A. occupied New Orleans in 1862, he levied a fine of $25 for anyone caught singing, playing or whistling the song. He then ordered the publisher, A.E. Blackmar, arrested, fined $500 and all copies destroyed. However, in March 1864, while in town, performing Richard III and Macbeth, a defiant John Wilkes Booth took a dare from friends, that he would walk the streets singing the song. When several Union soldiers drew their weapons to stop him, he talked his way out of arrest by mentioning he was not a resident and did not know of the law. Perhaps his celebrity status also aided his situation, but one cannot help but think if things would have be different, had be been jailed for an extended period..

 Prima Donna Waltz, 18--, Louis Antoine Jullien  (1812-1860)   [Brass Band Journal, 1854]

    This is a condensed version of Jullien's famous waltz arranged by G.W.E. Frederich. Jullien was born in France to a popular bandmaster, who, as a tribute to his players, used each of their names as middle names for Louis — some twenty names. Jullien entered the Paris Conservatory and later attempted to publish a band and orchestral journal but, due to financial problems, dropped the idea and moved to London to continue his conducting. In 1849 he organized three “super concerts comprising of a huge 400 piece orchestra, 3 choruses and 3 military bands. This is probably where Gilmore got the idea for his “Peace Jubilees.” Jullien was a showman, “the P.T. Barnum of music,” and gained international fame for his on-stage antics, fabulous attire and spectacular extravaganzas. He would conduct Beethoven only with a jeweled baton while wearing white kid gloves that were served on a silver platter at the podium. Despite his eccentricities, he was universally respected for his uncommonly fine musicianship.

  Mockingbird Q.S. 1854, Septimus Winner (1827-1902) and Richard Milburn     [3rd NH “Port Royal” Band Books]

    Winner was from a musical family in that his father was a violinmaker and his brother, Joseph, was also a composer (The Little Brown Jug). Septimus was a storekeeper and music teacher in Philadelphia where in the street he would hear “Whistlin' Dick” Milburn, a Negro boy, serenading people in the street with his guitar and bird-like warbling. Some sources also say he was a barber. Winner used one of Dick's melodies for Mockingbird and gave him prominent credit on the published music. He published it under his mother's name, Alice Hawthorne. He also gave Dick a job in the store. Lacking foresight, Winner sold the rights to the song for $5.00 after slow initial sales. The song sold millions of copies over the next 50 years. Later editions removed the credit to Milburn.

 The Girl I Left Behind Me, ca. 1758, tune: Brighton Camp, words:  Samuel Lover   [Squire's Cornet Band Olio, Set #1 1871]

    This tune was heard in America during the Revolution, as it was popular with both sides. The earliest known publication was in a bi-monthly Dublin magazine, dated around 1805. The words, collected by Lover, supposedly refer to the Crimean War of 1853 and mention leaving for “Brighton Camp.” This is the only connection found in relation to the tune title. The British Navy used it as their official tune of departure until Cheer, Boys, Cheer was adopted for that use. The tune was adopted by the Americans and has become a traditional army song especially associated with the U.S. 7th Infantry. A song parody was later written entitled I Goes to Fight Mit Siegal. The tune is called I Am Not Twenty in Daniel Steele's 1818 Preceptor for the Fife.

 Martha  Q.S. 1847, Friedrich von Flotow  (1812-1883)    [26th Regt. North Carolina Troops, C.S.A. Band Books]

    With its delightful dances and lovely arias, Martha took the world by storm; but not until its translation into English and the inclusion of Thomas Moore's  'Twas the Last Rose of Summer. The opera went limp for 6 years until it was revamped for American audiences. The comedy is set in England and deals with the mis-adventures of Lady Harriet and her friend Nancy, who hire themselves out at the fair as servants to two young farmers. Now, as Martha and Julia, they fall in love with the farmers and Martha is proposed to. In the night, tired of the charade, they make their escape. When it is later revealed the proposing farmer is actually the long lost son of the earl of Derby, the two marry—The End.

 Goober Peas, 1866, A. Pindar, Esq. / P. Nutt, Esq.  [piano: A.E. Blackmar]

    The song refers to the peanut, which had become the dietary staple for Confederate soldiers as rations dwindled away. Georgia soldiers were often called “goober grabbers.” The song was very popular with the troops though it went unpublished until 1866. Note the author and composer's names. Armand Edward Blackmar (1826-1888) believed to be the above was a composer and music dealer. Born in Vermont, he moved south and at age 19 had established music stores in Huntsville, Alabama and Vicksburg, Mississippi. Blackmar taught music in Huntsville from 1845 to 1852 when he became Professor of Music at Centenary College in Jackson, Louisiana. He later set up publishing houses in Augusta, Vicksburg, Mobile, San Francisco and his base in New Orleans.

 Jordan Am A Hard Road Ta Trabbel / Wait For The Wagon, Emmett / Buckley [26th Regt. North Carolina, C.S.A. Band Books]               

    E.P. Christy has been credited with the most familiar set of words to Emmett's song, referring to it as The Other Side of Jordan. It's chorus, though, is probably Emmett's, with the lines “Then pull off yer coat 'n' roll up yer sleeve, Jordan am a hard road ta trabbel, I believe.” Though many parody lyrics surfaced, none were more effective than John R. Thompson's Confederate version: Richmond Is A Hard Road To Travel. In it, he details the many failed campaigns to take the Confederate Capitol.

    R. Bishop Buckley’s (1826-1867) song was published as: “an Ethiopian Song for the Piano-Forte by George P. Knauff”, but most researchers credit Buckley with its composition. The delightful melody lends itself easily to parody and was used by politicians, propagandists and soldiers, alike.

 Rose of Alabama, 1846, S. S. Steele  [piano: Geo. P. Reed]

    A lot of confusion surrounds this tune, most popular with string bands. While the composition has been credited to the Honorable A.B. Meek, the published edition cited here is credited to S. S. Steele, with “words used by permission of Turner & Fisher,” and “sung by A.F. Winnemore & His Band of Serenaders.” In the song, a suitor crosses state lines to serenade his “sweet tobacco posey” in Alabama, and loses his banjo in the river. He returns nightly to search for his banjo and see his Rose of Alabama.

 The Yellow Rose of Texas, 1858, J. K.     [piano: Wm. A. Pond & Co.

    The yellow rose was a mulatto indentured servant, named Emily D. West, who kept Mexican General Santa Anna “occupied” so as to allow Sam Houston’s Texns to slip up and defeat the Mexican army at the Battle of San Jacinto. This minstrel song was apparently written in response to other songs about girls from different states such as Arkansas Kate and Belle ob Tenisee; however unlike the others Rose was not written in the burnt cork dialect. The only reference to the latter is the use of “darkie” when referring to the singer. When Southern soldiers sang this, the word “soldier” or fellow would likely be substituted. Several parodies exist but the most famous was sung in reference to Gen. John Bell Hood of Texas and his disastrous Tennessee campaign of 1864. The identity of J.K. is an enigma. Pure speculation might suggest Joseph Kelp or Joseph Philip Knight (Rocked in the Cradle of the Deep). With new words by Mrs. M.J. Young it became The Song of the Texas Rangers.

 Home, Sweet Home, 1823, Sir Henry Rowley Bishop (1786-1855)    [Dodworth's Brass Band School, 1853]

    This most popular song is from the opera Clari; or, The Maid of Milan and is based on a Sicilian Air. The American actor, John Howard Payne, wrote the opera. The opera was mediocre, at best, and did not remain on stage for long. The song, with all its nostalgia, persevered. There are several accounts of the song being sung and played by opposing troops in close proximity. Since this song is not sung loudly, one can only imagine how close these camps were to one another. Shortly after the Battle of Fredericksburg, a Federal band struck up the tune, which was quickly followed by a Confederate band from across the Rappahannock. Then every other regimental band in the area began playing it. Noting there wasn’t a dry eye to be found, Frank Mixson, of the 1st South Carolina Vols. Said, “if there hadn’t been a river between them, the two armies would have settled the war on the spot.” Later that month (Dec. 1862) a similar event took place at Murfreesboro. After alternating tune for some time, the bands played Home! Sweet Home! together. The next morning the armies slaughtered one another at the Battle of Stone’s River. 12,000 lives were lost in the 3-day engagement.

 Star - Spangled Banner, John Stafford Smith  (1750-1836) tune: To Anacreon In Heaven  [3rd NH Band Books]

    With words written by Francis Scott Key, The Defense of Fort McHenry, this tune was one of several patriotic airs that were popular during the war. The South had its own version with new words, called The Cross of the South. This arrangement is by Claudio S. Grafulla and is found in the 3rd NH “Port Royal” band books. It was played during the raising of the U.S. flag over Fort Sumter on April 14, 1865 at the conclusion of the war. The song officially became the U.S. National Anthem in 1931. The original tune was popular in England (pre Anacreon) as early as the 1770's with the publication of The Anacreontic Song in 1778.

 Skyrockets!  or Drum Corps Q.S. or Grafulla's Q.S., 1860, Claudio S. Grafulla  (1812-1880) [3rd  NH “Port Royal Band Books]

    Originally written for the band of the 7th Regt. New York State Militia, the chart found its way into the books of the 3rd New Hampshire. It was later published as a piano solo (1860) and again for brass band under the title Skyrockets! Since Olde Towne Brass hails from the “Rocket City,” (Huntsville, AL) we’ve kept that title. This arrangement uses the 3rd NH version with embellishment from the published sources.

    Grafulla was a tremendously talented and prolific composer and the foremost arranger for bands. Even today, modern wind bands continue to play his compositions, especially his march/quickstep Washington Grays. Nearly every surviving Civil War band book, Union and Confederate, contain Grafulla originals or his arrangements. It was said that a band wanted a potpourri of Wm. H. Fry’s new opera Leonore, and called on Grafulla. The bandleader whistled some of the opera’s melodies while Grafulla transcribed. A few hours later, he returned with a completed arrangement, and with only minor corrections, the selection was performed that night.

Aura Lea, 1861, William Whiteman Fosdick (1825-1862) and George R. Poulton (1828-1867)     [piano: John Church, Jr.]

    Written for Hooley and Campbell's Minstrels, Aura Lea was enormously popular on both sides during the war. Fosdick was a successful American writer. Poulton was born in England and later moved to U.S. where, by the 1840's, he had published several songs. The endurance of his tune is shown in Army Blue, with new words written for the graduating class of West Point (1865) by L.W. Becklaw and Love Me Tender (1956) by Elvis Presley and Vera Matson.

Hail to the Chief, 1812, James Sanderson  (1760-1841)     [25th Mass. Band Books]

    The “March & Chorus from the Dramatic Romance of the Lady of the Lake” is the inscription on the 1812 American publication of this tune, based on Sir Walter Scott’s poem. Possibly derived from an old Gaelic air, it was used in Sanderson’s musical play of 1812, in a gallant boating scene honoring highland chieftain, Sir Roderick Dhu.   It was played at Martin Van Buren's inauguration in 1837 and later became the Official March of the President of the United States during John Tyler’s administration.

St. Patrick's Day In The Morning & Garry Owen, traditional Irish / Welsh   [3rd NH  “Port Royal” Band Books]

    “St. Patrick's Day” was reportedly played by the pipers of an Irish brigade at the battle of Fontenoy on May 11, 1745, and published as early as 1748. The tune has been popular with American fifers since the latter part of the 18th century. “Garry Owen” is said to have been played in 1800 in a pantomime entitled “Harlequin Amulet.” The title is a corruption of Garryowen, an Irish town located in Limerick. Though no documentation has surfaced, legend states that George Armstrong Custer liked the tune so much he had his mounted 7th Cavalry Band play it wherever they went, including into battle during the Indian Wars.

When Johnny Comes Marching Home, 1863, Louis Lambert (Patrick S. Gilmore) (1829-1892) [3rd NH  “Port Royal” Band Books]

    Gilmore, born in Ireland, came to the U.S. in 1840 and quickly made a name for himself. By 1850 he was conductor of the Boston Brigade Band and at the outset of war was Bandmaster of the 24th Mass. Band. While stationed in New Orleans (1863) he was made Bandmaster for the U.S. Army. There has been controversy over the tune's origin, some saying it was an old Irish tune or written by minstrels, supported by the fact the tune, with different words, had been in print prior to Gilmore’s publication; but to-date no proof of publication has been produced. This includes the song: Johnny, I Hardly Knew Ye, which is said to date from the Crimean War. Gilmore later admitted the tune was a “musical waif” that he rescued. The song, despite its tremendous popularity, reached its pinnacle 35 years later during the Spanish-American War.

Indiana Polka, 1856, Edmund Jaeger   [Peters' Saxhorn Journal, 1859]

    Peter's Saxhorn Journal was published for use by bands of as few as six players. The charts used doubling to ensure a complete sound with the minimum of horns. These were popular arrangements, demonstrated by the fact they were still being offered for sale in the 1870's. Not much has been found on Mr. Jaeger, except that he is not related to Dr. Edmund C. Jaeger, the desert naturalist.

America, tune: God Save the King  (attributed to Henry Carey)  [25th Mass Regt. Band Books]

    The actual composer of God Save the King has never been determined, as research has shown many plausible connections to Henry Purcell, John Bull, 15th Century plainsong and even Christmas Carols. American songbooks often listed Henry Carey though he never claimed it. His son, in an effort to receive a pension from the British Government, stated his father wrote the words in 1745 or 1746. He had forgotten his father died in 1743! After the Declaration of Independence, many new American words were written and in 1831 Rev. Samuel Francis Smith (1808-1895) penned My Country! 'Tis of Thee.

The Battle Cry of Freedom, 1862 George Frederick Root  (1820-1895)   [piano: Root & Cady]

    Root was already a leading music educator and editor when he joined his brother and Chauncey Cady at their publishing firm and began producing some of the most memorable songs of the 1800's. This rallying song sparked great fervor and spurred-on many men in battle, North and South. As with most popular songs, words were often altered to fit the singer, so that a powerful pro-Union song could be sung with as much zeal by any Confederate sympathizer. In his biography, Root claims to have been inspired by Lincoln's second call for troops and wrote the words and music in only a few hours and performed it at a huge rally on July 24, 1862 with the ink barely dry.

Red White & Blue, 1843, Thomas E. Williams  (d.1854)  [Stratton Military Band Journal, 1868]

    Now more commonly known as Columbia, Gem of the Ocean, “RWB” has a rather dubious past. Prior to its Americanization, the song was published in Great Britain as Britannia, Pride of the Ocean. The British claim to have published in 1842 with words by Stephen J. Meany, an Irish journalist, while, in America, the argument was between David T. Shaw and Thomas A'Beckett. Shaw published Columbia, the Land of the Brave in 1843, and when Beckett, a writer of renown, claimed it as his own, it was republished as Columbia, Gem of the Ocean. It might be noted that Shaw had, at one time or another, submitted words to Beckett, but were quickly discarded as rubbish. In 1861, John J. Daly published the work under the title The Red, White and Blue and gave no credit to either, calling it merely a “National Song (& Chorus). The song rivaled The Star-Spangled Banner in popularity. It is also known as The Army and Navy Song, because it pays its respects to both.

Light of Other Days, 1836, Michael W. Balfe (1808-1880)  [Dodworth's Brass Band School, 1853]

    This aria is taken from the opera, The Maid of Artois by Alfred Bunn. Bunn was a poet and theater manager. He managed both Covent Garden and Drury Lane during the 1840's. He commissioned Balfe to write the music. Twenty years after its premiere, Light of Other Days was described as “the most popular song in England that our days have known.”

Marching Through Georgia, 1865, Henry Clay Work  (1832-1884)    [piano: Root & Cady]

    The event that the song celebrates is of course, Sherman's march “From Atlanta to the Sea.” Like any good propaganda piece, the song takes no notice of the actual realities of the situation it glorifies. The fact that Sherman's devastating month-long march, so filled with senseless destruction, came after the Confederacy was already substantially defeated and that it was motivated more by imperious self-aggrandizement than by military necessity. This song still stirs the flames in the South. Beware!

    Georgia was written shortly after General Sherman began his famous march to the sea about the 16th of November 1864. Mr. Work wrote some splendid army songs, but his reputation will rest on Marching Through Georgia. So universal in its use, General Sherman heard it with supreme disgust. It pursued him from city to city, and from state to state, and in all the great cities of Europe in which he was received. When the General attended the national encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic in Boston in 1890, he saw from the reviewing stand two hundred and fifty bands, and a hundred fife and drum corps pass in review; and the old warrior stood for seven mortal hours listening to the never ending strains of the music which commemorates the most triumph march of modern times. His patience collapsed, and with a grim gravity, peculiar to him, and in language too emphatic for repetition here, he declared that he would never attend another national encampment until every band in the United States has signed an agreement not to play Marching Through Georgia in his presence. This was Sherman's last encampment, and when the tune was next played in his presence, six months after, “there came no response from the echoless shore to which his soul had wafted.”   (Notes from Bill Warren)

College Galop, 1862, arr: Gustavus W. Ingalls (1824-?)  [3rd NH “Port Royal” Band Books]

    This is a medley of “College” songs arranged by G.W. Ingalls who served as Band Master of the 3rd New Hampshire Volunteer Infantry Band, later the 2nd Brigade Band, 10th Army Corps stationed at Port Royal, Hilton Head, South Carolina. Several school songs are presented along with some student favorites. Included is Lauriger Horatious (O Tannenbaum) from Yale and Oxford, Upidee, which was used as a parody of Longfellow’s Excelsior, Benny Haven's Oh! (Wearing of the Green) from West Point Academy, Litoria! Litoria! from Yale, and the German student song, Gaudeamus Igitur, used in Brahms' Academic Overture.

Tramp! Tramp! Tramp! (or The Prisoner's Hope), 1864, George F. Root (1820-1895)     [piano: Root & Cady]

    With the whole nation wondering about the status of loved ones in enemy prisons, Root capitalized with the introduction of Tramp! It was an immediate success with its universal sentiment and rousing melody. Within 6 months of release, it had sold 100,000 copies. Today it is known as Jesus Loves the Little Children and God Save Ireland.

Kathleen Mavourneen, 1837, Frederick Crouch  (1808-1896)     [part books found in the archives of the U.S. Marine Band]

    Before moving to America in 1849, Crouch was a well-known English songwriter who often chose Irish themes. The poem, written by Mrs. Marion Crawford, appeared in Metropolitan Magazine, and was immediately set to music by Crouch. The two subsequently met and collaborated further. Crouch played in the Royal Coburg Theatre at age 9. Later, he played cello at Drury Lane and sang in the choirs of Westminster Abbey and St. Paul's. He came to America with an Italian opera company and settled in Virginia. He served the Confederacy by performing on trumpet and working at Richmond Hospital.

Hail Columbia, 1789, Philip Phile   (d. ca. 1793)  [Brass Band Journal, 1854]

    Originally titled “The President's March” it served in that capacity until the mid 19th Century when Hail To The Chief replaced it. Hail Columbia is now the official march of the Vice President. The tune was so popular to the Federalists, Gilbert Fox, a singer at the New Theatre in Philadelphia, urged Joseph Hopkinson, whose father, Francis, was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, to compose words for it. Hopkinson wrote the poem Hail! Columbia in 1798.

Yankee Doodle, 18th Century, anon   [Brass Band Journal, 1854]

    So much has been written, speculating on the origins of this song that attempts to trace its source are futile. Critically, the tune is weak and the lyrics pathetic—just the kind of song a soldier could love! Originally intended as an insult to the Continental Army, the tune was picked up and sung with gusto by the colonists that its words became a sort of “in your face” gesture towards the British invaders. It became a unifying thread among soldiers for the newly United States and a bond of solidarity for Union (and Confederate) soldiers with their forefathers. This was one of only two tunes Gen. U.S. Grant said he knew. The other wasn't.

 The Vacant Chair, 1862, Henry S. Washburn & George F. Root     [piano: Root & Cady]

    Sub-titled We Shall Meet but We Shall Miss Him the subject of the song is 18-year-old Lt. John William Grout of the 15th Mass. Vol. Inf. who was killed Oct. 21, 1861 at Balls Bluff. He was to receive his first furlough in a few weeks. Washburn, a guest in the Grout home for Thanksgiving, noted the unoccupied place at the dinner table and was moved to write the poem in honor of “Willie.” His friend G.F. Root set the poem to music and published it in 1862. The universality of the lyrics was evident as it was published in the South three times.

Glory, Hallelujah  (John Brown's Body), 1861,   [piano: Oliver Ditson & Co.]

    The tune and “Glory” refrain were written in the 1850's by William Steffe, a Southern Methodist minister and published in 1858 as Say, Brothers, Will You Meet Us. In 1859, soldiers of the 2nd Battalion, Boston Light Infantry added the words about John Brown, a Sergeant in the unit at Fort Warren (not the abolitionist of the same name). This did not stop the general public in promoting the latter and adding more words to support the claim. Julia Ward Howe was convinced, by Rev. James Freeman Clarke (of the Sanitary Commission) to write new, more dignified, words to the song after reviewing the troops at Bailey's Crossroads and hearing the crude lyrics sung by the soldiers. That night, in the Willard Hotel in Washington D.C., she awoke, inspired, and quickly penned the new words. Editor James Fields inserted the title Battle Hymn of the Republic when he published the poem in the February 1862 Atlantic Monthly.


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